Quick post about my Wanhao Duplicator i3 3D Printer (Cocoon Create and Balco are the same printers). It's a good learner printer based on the opensource RepRap design by Prusa. The reason I chose this printer was because of it's all metal frame, large community base and its $400AUD delivered price tag!
In terms of modifications/upgrades to this printer, I think this is all I will do/spend on it. My plan from here is to print parts to build a new printer, probably something based on the Core XY design, like the Hyper Cube.
Forgot to take photos of when I first unpacked the printer, but first upgrades were this Micro Swiss hot-end and borosilicate glass to print on.
I then started printing out modifications for the printed with the included PLA filament. These are Z-axis braces and filament guide.
I blueprinted the X-axis linear motion and started installing the Z-axis brace.
At this stage I was still printing with the included PLA as I learned more about the machine.
Next step was to print with ABS, so I quickly made this "enclosure", the idea behind this is to keep the ambient temperature consistent and warm. It helps reduce ABS's tendency to warp and delaminate when you're printing tall or large parts.
Below is a storm water drain grate I printed for my sister in ABS, it took up the whole build area! Also did a prototype shifter extension for a friend. At this point I also started using Kapton tape on my glass bed.
Fan duct and belt tensioner printed in ABS, also printed some new bearing carriers because I wanted to install longer linear bearings.
The bearing holders had printed threads too!
Printed some parts to extend the Z-axis, in anticipation of printing my intake manifold parts.
This is Printoid connected with my Octoprint/Octopi setp running on a Raspberry Pi.
Make up organiser for my girlfriend printed in ABS.
And this was printed in black PETG, prototype piece for a friends 180SX front bar intake duct.
And finally a new fan duct for the controller box, increases cooling as well as reducing noise from the tiny stock fan. Printed in black PETG.
This is going to be a big photo dump of my latest adventures into 3D printing, both for prototyping and hopefully end usage. I purchased myself a 3D printer, Wanhao Duplicator i3, and I'll do a separate post for that soon. For now let's talk about my experiences with the intake parts I'm prototyping 🙂
I have no real knowledge in both 3D printing/modelling and engine intake theory, I'm just learning as I go, so there will be mistakes here and there. And therefore, not entirely sure if these parts/designs will make any measurable performance gains, but it's all fun anyway!
In my last post, I had just commissioned some prints of velocity stacks. Well I did some redesigns, and they can now be found on thingiverse.com, again it's still all a work in progress and I'm not expert in the design theory.
The velocity stacks are 105mm tall and designed for Silvertop AE101 throttle bodies.
Next up was designing an airbox for the ITBs and 105mm tall stacks, I pretty much modelled it using the same external dimensions as my Pipercross filter. I did this because I know for sure that it would clear all the brake and clutch parts in the engine bay and I also wanted the ability to easily change from filter to airbox. I can and will make a better design once I have this design fitted and tested.
For the Pipercross filter and this airbox to clear the stacks, a new mounting plate needed to be made. So I chose to print out a spacer that would be sandwiched between two laser cut plates, you can see it in the previous screenshot.
Below is my ideal design, will work on that soon.
The printed spacer for the filter mounting plate, had to be printed in multiple pieces due to the limited build volume of my printer (200mm x 200mm x 180mm).
Before doing the actual prototype print I decided to use some rubbish filament for a test print without support material, just to see how far it could go. It failed pretty quick when it got to the dome part, it recovered slightly towards the end though.
Here you can see the rear section of the airbox being printed, tried to minimise the usage of plastic and support material. This was printed at mostly 200micron layer height and the curved sections were printed at 100micron layer height, varying the layer height like this helps reduce print time as well as reduce support material for the sections with overhang.
Mid section being printed, by far the easiest part. Only needed support material for the mount flanges, this was printed at 280micron layer height.
And this is the front section being printed, all printed at 280micron layer height. This part had some design modifications to improve print-ability, also to reduce plastic usage and support material.
Since this is a prototype for test fitting, sections are glued together using Cyanoacrylate. Final part will either be epoxied or plastic welded together, not sure yet. Or maybe just use the print as a mold for carbon fibre?
It's amazing seeing this all come together as one piece, nearly 500mm total length. So happy!
Photo trying to show the internal clearances with stacks installed, minimum distance to walls is 25mm.
Some lessons I learned during this entire print are that overhangs causes prints to look like crap. So I've made the following design changes to help reduce overhangs.
- I added a chamfer on the inside surface to reduce the overhang angles under the "dome", this allows me to print with minimal support material, and the chamfer being only 20% solid means I use less plastic overall.
- The highlighted flat sections at either ends of the flange remove the overhangs and allows my printer to simply bridge that section, which my printer does very well. This makes the print look cleaner and also reduce support material.
- I found that printing holes on a vertical plane produces nasty overhangs and causes imperfections in and around the hole, so I opted to print only dimples instead of a through-hole. This improves the finish and I can just simply drill the holes post print anyway.
I also modelled this catch can and printed it out for test fitting. Unfortunately, the filament ran out before it completed printing. Was still able to test fit though!
Lately I've been spending more time learning how to model parts in 3D, still new so bare with me. It's not a new concept to me, but I am using Fusion 360 mainly now and sometimes a bit of SolidWorks.
I've done some prints in the past, a good example would be the bulk head connector plate I drew up and printed. Had it installed in the car while I waited for the final piece to be laser cut from steel.
And now I'm starting to move onto slightly more detailed designs. Starting of with "remixing" a design from Thingiverse.
4AGE Black Top Velocity Stack - http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:25207
And my "remixed" version, which is basically modified for Silver Top engines instead of Black Top and increasing overall length to 115mm.
4AGE Silver Top Velocity Stack - http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:2016083
I than scrapped that design altogether and did one from scratch, increased the radius lip profile and removed the side bracing. The print below was done in ABS and I'll be testing it for clearance and heat resistance. If all goes well, I'll most likely print my final design in ABS. If not, other materials like Nylon and Poly-carbonate are alternative options for heat resistance.
And this is another design I quickly modelled. Main differences being the bottom flange, length adjusted to 105mm and the dimpled internal surface. NO idea how that'll work for airflow, good or bad, but it's fun drawing these and 3D printing them! The idea is from dimpled surfaces on golf balls, and I've seen shops machine dimples onto the back of inlet valves and cylinder head ports.
And this is how the print came out.... About halfway up the velocity stack, the wall was a tiny bit too thin and the dimples were too deep! Not something I was expecting, but I'll learn from this one and make revisions. This print was also done at 300 micron layer height, I think it needs to be 100-200 micro next time.
And finally, this is an airbox/plenum that will mount to my current Pipercross filter plate. Still needs some work here and there, but I'm pretty set on the general shape of it and the inlet is 4.5" diameter. The final product could be moulded from the 3D print and made with carbon fibre, or possible printed entirely out of fibre infused nylon for strength and heat resistance.
More to come!
Welllll than...... A couple new things in this update, and possibly a second post regarding some stuff I've been 3D modelling for the build.
First up, managed to install this 5V oil pressure sender and input it into the Megasquirt for full datalogging and dash display through Shadow Dash. The tablet mounted using two magnetic mounts clipped to the eye-ball vents. Works very well and has a very strong hold.
It was surprisingly easy to get working, the sender needs +5v, ground and signal return to the ECU. I happened to use the AD6 input on my Megasquirt, and TunerStudio has a built in wizard to configure your sender.
Developed a slight oil leak into cylinder no. 4 so took valve cover off to replace the gasket. Remember to go genuine valve cover gasket! I've had nothing but trouble with non-genuine valve cover gaskets.
Finally bought some new tyres and fresh alignment done! Hankook RS3 225/45 R15.
Received and installed my IL Motorsport bonnet lifts, not sure if I like them yet.
Next up, I had some spare parts accumulating and was able to put together this LED bar kit. It's operated via RF remote control that looks like a bomb detonator, the LED light bar and associated electronics (now enclosed in water-proof case) are mounted just behind the front bar.
Garage Star Coil-on-Plug adapter acquired!
Toda forged pistons!!! They are 11.0:1 compression ratio and +3mm overbore, made from a special alloy with very littler thermal expansion which allows it to run factory Mazda piston-to-bore clearances. Toda also designed the skirt to allow usage of factory oil squirters. I also ordered the matching overbore head gasket from Toda.
Some close ups of the pistons.
New update time.
First off, I won the "People's Choice" Award at the 2016 All Japanese Day. So happy!
A few small updates to the interior.
Push button start installed in the factory cigarette port, Jass Performance shifter boot, and my new Hazard Switch Kit.
This was a custom turned part my friend made for me. It's pretty much a quick connect fitting into a barb adapter. And it's used for my temporary idling setup.
Had this piece laser cut out of aluminium to mount the modification and build plates.
I also managed to install the Pipercross C604D air filter. The adapter plate was a custom one and the filter is offset towards the front of the car by 10mm, this was done to clear the clutch master cylinder and reservoir.
And there's very little clearance, so I need to find a more compact clutch master and reservoir solution soon.
I've had side skirts on my car in the past, but I removed them because they always seems to go wavey after awhile. This was using the skirts made from ABS plastic, but I'm pretty sure the polyurethane ones will do the same. Fibreglass ones should never go wavey, but the fibreglass ones I bought ages ago were wavey out of the box. It seemed like they were moulded off a set of wavey ABS ones.
So these are some new ABS plastic ones, but modified. I had some aluminium sheet (1.5mm thick) laser cut, and folded one side to give it some rigidity. I then wire brushed both surfaces to roughen it up, and a polyurethane based adhesive was used to hold them together. Lots of clamping...
Hopefully they'll hold up, will update how it goes after summer!
Side skirts installed!
OK! I'm excited for my new Hazard Switches kit 🙂
Item can be purchased below, use the shopping cart if you're in Australia, or use the PayPal button below (and in the product description) if you're located outside of Australia. Prices are in Australian Dollars and shipping is built into the price.
Now the first job before installing your new Hazard Switches is to remove the tombstone. I won't go into this step because there are dozens of tutorials that already exist online. The YouTube video below is pretty good.
This is how you'll receive the kit, comes with the "plug & play" harness, switches, panels and brand new omgpham.com sticker.
Take note of the labelled bags and the markings on the face plate and switches.
Install the switch marked "R" in the top position of the face plate, and switch marked "B" goes in the bottom position. Switch locations and orientation are marked on the back of the face plate.
Once the switches are in, you can go ahead and install the backing plate and carefully tighten the nuts until finger tight, making sure the switches and face plate are in position. Once the nuts are finger tight, grip the switch housing and rotate counter-clockwise to further tighten down the switches.
The connector labelled "R" plugs into the top position, and connector labelled "B" goes into the bottom switch.
And this connector plugs into the factory wiring.
OK! So last post was positive, engine started up, ran well and idled nicely. But that didn't last long...
While getting the tune sorted, I noticed that the vacuum readings were a little off and it turned out to be a vacuum leak due to a hose not being connected properly. Fixed the vacuum leak and then the engine didn't want to idle anymore... So I fixed the idling issue but that resulted in my brake booster not getting enough vacuum to assist the brakes 🙁
So the real problem was the vacuum set up, I think. So I've come up with a set up that mimics a few other off-the-shelf ITB kits. Haven't had time to finish everything yet, but will post update when I get it running again and report back on the vacuum set up.
These are the push-to-connect fittings I'm using, swivel tee fittings.
Marked out the holes and drilled 11.1mm holes so that I could tap a 1/4" NPT thread.
The fittings tested fitted and measured so I could cut the hoses. The hoses need be installed in the fittings while they're out.
Vacuum rail installed and the old holes plugged up.
Also test fitted the filter backing plate, some clearance issues here...
Installed a Garage Star Wiper Cowl panel, and need to make a new fuel hose because I had to go from dual to single feed fuel setup.
And finally installed and gapped the headlight covers, hate doing them so much.
This was not a smooth start up.... Ran into a few issues earlier on, car would crank over and sometimes nearly run but never more than than a fraction of a second. Went through and checked through the wiring and grounds, everything was good there, a quick visual inspection of the cam gear and cam lobes to see if they were in the right positions. And a whole bunch of things....
The ECU logs showed consistent sync loss, error no. 31. Something was wrong with the cam/crank sensors. In my particular case it was caused by the crank trigger wheel being installed backwards :P. And I actually did check it earlier on, but checked it incorrectly!
Once I flipped that trigger wheel around, it started right away! Here's a quick video of it, more to come later!
After the last update, we went for a short trip. Then there was the house move.... So not a whole lot has happened with the build, but still some steps closer to start up :).
I finally received my laser cutting order, the original holes for the wiring have been blocked up and the bulk head panel is done too. All three pieces were painted with a clear-over-base rattle can paint system. Turned out pretty good 🙂
Would also like to look at redoing my brake lines at some stage.
This is the Jass Performance shifter boot. They're a direct bolt in part with a much more durable boot than the Mazda item. My brand new Mazda replacement lasted just over a year. Will be doing a group buy soon for these 🙂
Interior back together.
Borrowed a friend's Pipercross air filter for testing fitting. These have an internal height of 120mm I believe, more than suitable for my 75mm velocity stacks.
But the problem is that it doesn't clear the clutch master cylinder and reservoir. I'm currently talking to a few people with some possible solutions, more info when that's sorted.
And had my HKS headers ceramic coated by Thermal Edge Coatings.
Some more progress over the last few weeks.
I installed new door cards and door pull. The door cards are by CarbonMiata and door pulls by Jass Performance, both products available through my store. I also went with some larger diameter speaker grills, I think it works well with the rest of the interior.
The interior wiring is now completed.
Rear lip was painted gloss black and finished mounting that up.
I used some rubber sheeting to make a gasket for the bulk head connector panel, cost a couple dollars off eBay. Than used some spray on glue to position it on the panel.
In a previous post I mentioned I had to make a jig to mount my throttle bodies, well below are more details on this. Quality of the T3 manifold isn't the greatest. Basically because the T3 manifold doesn't have dowels and the throttle body mounting holes aren't in the correct positions, the throttle bodies were never perfectly aligned. This misalignment results in the butterflies not opening evenly. I confirmed this with a spare set of throttle bodies.
No matter what adjustments were made, the butterflies would either be out of sync at closed throttle or part/full throttle. Even adjusting the bypass screws wouldn't help.
Not too sure how important it is to have them open evenly, but it can't be a good thing if they're not...
Below shows a factory Toyota manifold with two locating dowels on each throttle body.
Throttle bodies mounted to the Toyota manifold and everything dialed in.
The jig mounted to the throttle bodies using the top holes.
Throttle bodies unbolted from the Toyota manifold and transferred to the T3 manifold. The threaded holes in the T3 manifold were not spaced correctly so I had to drill out the holes in the throttle bodies to get everything to bolt down.
Jig plate removed from the throttle bodies and trumpets installed.
Intake mounted up and injectors connected.